Eau de Cologne

The essential oil/botanical extract component of a perfume, I call ‘juice’. The least concentrated is Eau de Cologne. This tends to contain about 7% juice dissolved in alcohol of 60º or 70º. It is delightfully refreshing in hot weather and because it doesn’t last long, it can be frequently reapplied directly to the skin. It tends to be marketed in large sizes of up to 200 ml and is often applied by spray.

Eau de Toilette

Eau de toilette can contain up to around 10% juice or aromatic essence. The top notes – the first scent released by a perfume – are dominant, making it refreshing when it is applied, and it evaporates and fades away quite quickly. Eau de toilette and cologne are usually much cheaper than Eau de Parfum and Parfum and the most popular forms in which fragrance is sold.

Eau de Parfum

After the top notes have died away, the middle notes or heart notes of a perfume are expressed. This is the focus of an Eau de Parfum. The concentration of oils is over 15%, sometimes reaching as high as 20%.


Parfum, also called perfume extract or extrait, is the most expensive version of any fragrance.   This is due to the high concentration of essences – from 25% and up to as much as 40% by volume of juice.

Parfum is applied directly to the skin on pulse spots – insides of the wrists, behind the ears, at the throat. The French apply Parfum to the backs of their knees, (highly recommend)…. My favourite area to apply Theoria Gold Parfum is on the upper arms, so it can easily be enjoyed. The average concentration of essence in a perfume is 25%, which makes it the longest lasting of all the scent categories.

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